DNA and Serology




All living things are comprised of tiny components of life. Streams of living cells flow through the body while others attach to form specialized tissues and organs. Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA, is the blueprint for building living cells. The individuality of the complex structures is used to tell one person  from another and identify species of other organisms. Plants and animals also contain DNA which can be used in criminal investigations. Blood and saliva are the most used samples, but almost any sample can be examined.

Students will examine the characteristics of serological materials and the chemical compounds that make up the structures of life.

1.  What percentage of second generation offspring exhibits a recessive trait?      25

2.  What are two reasons that drisophila (the fruit fly) are used in genetic research?

       short reproductive cycle                                 large number of offspring

3. Dr. McClintock studied transposons which are known as jumping chromosomes which were connected to basketball star

     Michael Jordan because of his similar ability.

4. A bacteriophage converts other cells to bacteria producers by using a host cell.

5. Name the four DNA bases :        adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

6. Watson and Crick identified the shape of the DNA molecule as a double helix.

7. Messenger  RNA translates information used in duplication of DNA strands. 

8. How many amino acids are used in producing proteins?      20

 9. What type of enzymes are used to cut DNA into segments at specific locations?          Restriction

10. Diseases like Huntington’s disease exhibit short repeats of sequences. This was helpful to Jeffries in labeling the first DNA variant.

11. RNA interference was discovered while experimenting with round worms.

12. How many genes do we have? 26,000

13. The name of a specific sequence for a person or animal is its genome.

14. Most of the genes are shared between species, but they appear on different chromosomes.

Human chromosome #1 nearly matches Rat chromosome #13 (both are mammals)

1900 Landsteiner identified four groups of human beings dividing them into polymorphs by blood type

1928 Cuboni determined that agglutinogens are present in every body fluid, not just blood

Adenine and Thymine pair as a pyramidine base

Cytosine and Guanine pair as a purine base

Mitochondrial DNA is transmitted from the mother's genes

Cellmark Diagnostics acquired the rights to the phrase "DNA Fingerprinting" as part of their patented DNA identification process

DNA can be collected from many surfaces such as clothing, door handles, toothbrushes, hairbrushes, and other items that come in close contact with a person.

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